An estimated 1.8m UK households containing nearly 3.8 million people, including 1 million children, were destitute at some point in 2022, according to the study, published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF). Poverty campaigners, teachers and frontline welfare workers have expressed growing alarm about the damaging effects of destitution, particularly on children, including physical ill health, undernourishment, mental illness, social isolation, school absences and poor classroom behaviour.